In recent years, new techniques such as deep packet inspection and flow classification have become practical ways to identify high-level characteristics of network traffic from within the network. This allows the network to treat some classes of traffic differently than others with respect to blocking, quality of service, and pricing. This will lead to new ways to enhance network security, support new applications like video and voice over IP that have more demanding quality of service requirements, and prevent starvation within the network. It will also lead to new business models, and new ways to charge for network services. Such techniques could even be used to limit consumers' choice of content, application, or device. In this research, we explore techniques that can be used by routers and other devices within the network, as well as devices at the edge of the network. We consider the technical implications, business implications, and policy implications for issues such as network neutrality.